The present invention relates to the preparation of polyetherester polyols. In particular, the invention discloses the use of novel hybrid catalysts for making uniform polyetherester polyols by copolymerization of at least one alkylene oxide with certain cyclic compounds.
The claimed polyetherester polyols are useful inter alia for synthesizing novel polyurethane materials, in particular polyurethane elastomers. Generally, polyurethanes are multi-block polymers, usually consisting of soft segments derived from polyols, and hard segments arising from isocyanates and extenders. Because the polyols generally constitute the majority of the formulation weight, the final properties of polyurethane products are largely determined by the polyols.
Therefore, much attention has been paid to the polyol manufacture. A great polyol variety can be used to build the polyurethane polymeric architecture, and the most widely employed polyols are polyether and polyester polyols.
However, they are plagued by a number of demerits and have limited applications in some fields. For example, although polyether based polyurethanes exhibit good stability against hydrolysis, they suffer from poor strength properties and heat resistance. In contrast with these, polyester based polyurethanes show good mechanical performance and heat stability, however, the susceptibility to hydrolysis is a primary problem requiring solution. To integrate respective merits and remedy the respective disadvantages originating from the conventional polyether and polyester polyols, both ether and ester linkages containing polyetherester polyols enjoy growing interest recently.
They are expected to have a more attractive performance than the separate polyether or polyester polyols. Furthermore, the polyetherester polyols could be used alone, or in combination with the conventional polyols for polyurethane production, therefore extending the polyol source. Simple blending of a polyether and a polyester is not an option for solving the mentioned problems, due to their incompatibility in nature.
To date, various synthetic routes for the preparation of different polyetherester polyols have been proposed. Some representative methodologies are summarized as follows: 1 catalytic addition of alkylene oxides onto polyester polyols using double metal cyanide complex DMC catalyst, for example see U.
Application ; 5 Copolymerization of anhydride, alkylene oxide and alcohol initiator, as described in U. Patent Application No. In addition, polyetheresters can be produced by the copolymerization of alkylene oxide and cyclic esters such as lactone in the presence of a suitable initiator, as described in U.
Patent Application or International Application No. In the preparation of such polyetheresters, catalyst choice is crucial.Toenails are thickened extensions of the top layer of our skin and are made of the same tough protein, called keratin. The nail grows out from an area below the skin known as the matrix and is intimately connected to the blood vessel and nerve-rich nail bed beneath it.
Your toenails are subject to a great deal of stress, whether it's rubbing against shoes, a stubbed toe, or the constant presence of bacteria and fungi picture the environment inside a shoe. In light of these conditions, there are three common toenail problems that we often see.
This photo contains content that some people may find graphic or disturbing. You may be surprised to learn that toenail fungal infections are usually caused by the same type of fungi that cause athlete's foot.
In fact, people who are prone to athlete's foot may also be susceptible to toenail fungal infections. Toenail fungus can affect anyone but becomes more prevalent with aging. Individuals with certain diseases, such as diabetes and conditions that affect limb circulation, are more susceptible to fungal nail infections, along with people who have suppressed immune systems. Other risk factors include:. Fungal infections usually occur underneath the nail and begin at the end of the nail where it gets trimmed.
The most common changes that occur with toenail fungal infections include:. This will help decrease the thickness of the nail and relieve discomfort that may be occurring with shoe wear. Debridement may also increase the effectiveness of topical treatments. However, oral antifungal medicines are not always an option for many people due to potential side effects and cost.
Also, there are a number of over-the-counter topical medications for toenail fungus. However, since the fungus resides deep in the nail and underneath it, these medications have limited success in treating toenail fungus, especially if it has spread significantly throughout the nail.
An ingrown toenail occurs when the edge of the toenail, usually the big toe, grows into the skin next to it called the lateral nail fold.
An ingrown toenail causes pain at the side of the toe along with swelling. Then, massage the side of your nail gently to decrease inflammation.
In addition, you may have to take a closer look at the fit and shape of your shoes and socks to analyze whether they are what is causing your ongoing problem. It might mean having to choose between cute shoes and cute toes. If your doctor suspects an infection, you may need to take an antibiotic. In addition, note that your doctor may need to remove part of or your complete toenail to ease the inflammation. It can also be the result of a sudden injury, such as stubbing your toe or dropping an object on it.
Injury to the nail's growth center, or matrix, can result in a number of possible changes to the nail. Toenail trauma can result in secondary bacterial or fungal infection if any part of the nail has come loose. Acute trauma may also result in a fracture of the bone beneath the nail, to which the nail is in close proximity.
It's best to have any toenail color changes or toenail loosening evaluated by a podiatrist or other health care provider.
An Overview of Common Toenail Problems
In some cases, although infrequent, black or brown discoloration may be signs of skin cancer melanoma. Having a thick or otherwise damaged toenail removed surgically will probably not result in a healthier nail growing in its place. Once a nail's growth center nail matrix is damaged, it usually continues to produce a thickened or disfigured nail.
If you have a toenail problem, you may feel embarrassed by its appearance. Or you may be worried that whatever is wrong with your toenail is a window into an underlying health condition that has not yet been diagnosed.
Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. Emerging Concepts In Treating Onychomycosis.The Office of Human Resources exists to serve faculty and staff in the development, implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive personnel, training and employment relations system. Through consultation and information dissemination, we assist the University of Wisconsin-Madison to anticipate and meet the human resources demands of a changing educational environment.
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UW—Madison, in collaboration with UW System, is conducting a study of current job titles and compensation. This review of more than 30, employees across UW System will help create sustainable ways to maintain market-informed job titles and compensation to continue to attract and retain the best talent. The study will look at titles and total compensation for academic and university staff, post-degree training positions, and limited executive and administrative appointees in comparison to institution-specific peers and competitors.
The review will include identifying leading practices in benefits other than health insurance and retirement, which are administered by the state for faculty and staff. In addition, the study will review compensation for graduate teaching, research, and program assistants.
For more information, see Title and Total Compensation Project. Feedback, questions, or accessibility issues: ohrwebmaster ohr. Office of Human Resources. Search this site:. Welcome to the Office of Human Resources The Office of Human Resources exists to serve faculty and staff in the development, implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive personnel, training and employment relations system.Log in to get trip updates and message other travelers.
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Today it is swollen. It feels as if it is in the middle joint. How can one tell if it is "turf toe" or gout? Turf toe is a sprain to the ligament at the base of the big toe or great toe.
It can occur after a very vigorous upward bending of the big toe causing a sprain to the ligaments under base of the big or great toe. Symptoms include swelling and pain at the joint of the big toe and metatarsal bone in the foot.
Pain and tenderness will be felt on bending the toe or pulling it upwards. If pain in the joint at the base of the big toe comes and goes, lasting for around a week at a time, with no obvious cause then consider gout as a possible cause of the toe pain.
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Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in some people who have high levels of uric acid in the blood. The acid can form needle-like crystals in a joint and cause sudden, severe episodes of pain, tenderness, redness, warmth and swelling. The most common place for gout to develop is the ball of the big toe but other joints can be affected. It is unusual for gout to affect more than one or two joints at a time.
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Available for Android and iOS devices. Subscribe to Drugs. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information - verify here. Skip to Content. Difference in turf toe and gout? Answer this question. Responses 1. Gout Attack - What's the best pain med?
I've developed sharp pain in my right big toe even though I'm taking mg of allopurinal. Methylprednisolone - I am on the 4th day and I am getting a new flair up of gout, Why?This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. They seem to me the only people who really hold close together. I don't know why ; it may be that each knows something that might hang the other, but the effect is delightful and most peculiar.
Mitb 3llii8trations VOL. I 11V H. So the flDcmon? Frontispiece The property ol Richard. Karl Grosvenor, atxmt the middle of the Eighteenth Century. From the original painting by George Stubbs at Eaton. By permission of His Grace the Duke of Westminster.
A black horse. The jockey wears a blue check jacket, gold sleeves, gold cap. By permission of the Right Hon. Stubbs, after the painting by George Stubbs. By permission of Sir Walter Gilbey.Jalea
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By permission of Mr. Somerville Tattersall. Meredith, of Easby, Yorkshire. From the original painting by George Stubbs at Elsenbam. A group of Foals at the Royal Stud, Sandringham From a photograph taken at Sandringham, by permission of His Majesty the King.
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